This essay aims at dispelling the common misconceptions in India about the language of Urdu and its tradition of rich literature. The misconceptions are: it a language of an alien land and a language of Muslims. In India, Urdu received a major dent in 1947 when it was dubbed a language of Muslims. Many people here in India shunned to use and learn the language and started using words of Sanskrit language. The essay highlights that these are the wrongly conceived notions and insufficient grounds are available to dub it so. In its earliest stage to the phase of its development, it remained here and represented the culture of this area providing solutions for the people’s problems and above all touching the hearts of the people of India. Mir Taqi Mir and Nazeer Akbar Abadi in their poetry used many subjects of Hindi culture as they did not limit the language of Urdu to Muslims. This essay finds it the British colonists behind the misconceptions about Urdu among the Indian as they wanted to divide and rule. In summing it up, the writer of this essay advised the writers of Urdu should not only use the simple language but also go together with the Sanskrit. Then, Urdu can be saved from further damage in India.
اردو زبان کی اولیں لغت کے تعلق سے ، دستیاب شواہد کی روشنی میں، اس بات پرمحققین کا اب قریب قریب اتفاق ہے کہ یہ ہندوستان کی تہذیب و ثقافت سے متعلقہ موضوعات پر مشتمل قاموسی نوعیت کی ایک فارسی تصنیف “تحفتہ الہند”میں شامل کی گئی تھی۔ اس کے مصنف کا نام تین طرح سے: (۱) میرزا خان بن فخرالدین محمد، (۲) میرزا محمد خان بن فخرالدین محمد، (۳) میرزا جان بن فخرالدین محمدجیسی قدرے مختلف صورتوں میں ملتا ہے۔ اس کا تعلق عہدجلال الدین اکبر (۱۵۵۶۵۵۱ء-۱۶۰۵ء ) کے مدبر و دانشور عبدالرحیم خانخاناں (۱۵۵۶ء – ۱۶۲۷ء) کے اخلاف سے تھا ، لیکن اس کے حالات ِ زندگی اور سرگرمیوں پر پردہ پڑاہوا ہے ۔
اس کتاب کو کراچی سے آکسفرڈ یونی ورسٹی پریس نے شائع کیا ہے جس پراس کتاب کا سال اشاعت۲۰۱۷ء رقم ہے جب کہ یہ کتاب کراچی میںدسمبر۲۰۱۶ء میںہونے والے کتابی میلے میں فروخت کے لیے موجود تھی۔ عام طو ر پر معروف ناشرین سرورق کے ڈیزائن کے خالق کا نام دینا ضروری سمجھتے ہیں۔ اس کتاب میں اس حوالے سے کچھ رقم نہیں کیا گیا ہے۔ اس کتاب کو سراکیوس یونی ورسٹی پریس (Syracuse Unveristy Press) سے۲۰۱۳ء شائع کیا جا چکا ہے۔ مصنفہ نے کتاب کے آغاز میں نشان دہی کی ہے کہ اس کتاب کے کچھ ابواب ایسے ہیں جو مختلف رسائل میں اس سے قبل شائع ہوچکے ہیں۔
Ibn al-‘Arabi’s influence reached Christian philosophers and mystics of the Middle Ages and has a deep effect on the mystical thought of some of the leading Sufis of the Indian Subcontinent. The views propounded by Ibn al-‘Arabi, were not left unchallenged. His books are carefully read and commented upon in detail.
Finally a new School, Shuhūdiyyah, emerged which maintained that the Not-being (‘adam) is conjoined with the reflex or illumination of the Names (‘asma”) and Attributes (ṣifāt) of God. This doctrine is clearly expounded by Ahmad Sirhindi (d. 1624 A.D.) who is generally known as Mujaddid-i-Alf-i-Thani (the Renewer of Islam in the second millennium of the Islamic Era).
Apart from the conflicting views of the staunch followers of Wujūdiyyah and Shuhūdiyyah Schools, an attempt has also been made to find a way of reconciliation between them. As Shah Waliullah (1703-1762 A.D.), a revolutionary Indian thinker and theologian, points out that if we leave simile and metaphor aside.
These two Schools of Sufism deeply influenced many eminent representatives of Indian intelligentsia, especially the mystical poets of the Subcontinent e.g. Mir Dard, a follower of both Ibn al-‘Arabi and Ahmad Sirhindi and the great Punjabi poet, Bullhe Shah, who was surnamed “the Rumi of Punjab”.
Turkish poetry, centred within the heartlands of a large area covering the Middle East and Central Asia, may be said to have reached its maximum aesthetic and stylistic development during the six centuries of the Ottoman Empire. After this Empire departed from the stage of history and was replaced by the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the poetical legacy of the past sought new channels and modes of expression. The article introduces a couple of poems each by 10 major poets of the first 50 years of the Turkish Republic both in original and in English translation.
The article examines the Indian identities which have their own distinct history and geographical values and theories developed in the Western societies and cultures don’t help in the understanding of Asian and Indian identities.The article primarily focuses social landscape of India but it cites some of the very relevant examples of Urdu poetry. The article writer goes on to say that the best specimen of ghazal’s identity-less culture is the poetry of Mir Taqi Mir. On the other hand, the article writer points out that during the last 65 years Indian culture has changed into a culture of political / electoral identities.The article explains the identities clustered under these major categories such as gender, culture, language, ethnicity and ideology. The article briefs Muslims religious identities and their sub-identities.
The articles highlights the little cited academic works by Henry Beveridge and Annette Beveridge of late nineteenth century scholars on the early Mughal period from Babar to Jahangir. This article not only sheds lights on the lives of the scholars but also discusses their works. Henry’s father wrote Comprehensive History of India…in three volumes. The later scholars are indebted to the works of these writers. Henry was among those few colonialists who defied the rulers in the pre-partitioned India. He wrote against their injustices and supported Indians to promote their upliftment.
The article aims at investigating the multi-faceted concept of religious tolerance comprising moral, psychological, social, legal, political and religious dimensions. The dimension of tolerance finds expression within the Islamic tradition and how it came to be enshrined in the Western thought after the Enlightenment. In the case of secular tolerance, one will encounter a positive and open-minded attitude, one capable of stimulating policies and laws of a tolerant nature towards the religious Other. The Islamic tradition, in principle as well as in practice, provide compelling answers to many questions pertaining to the relationship between religious tolerance and the practice of one’s own faith.
This essay analyses the intelligent and incicise approach of the great scholar, ShahWaliAllah, towards the Quranic sciences and the urgent need of Muslims to study them in order to survive. It places within the contemporary perspective ShahWaliAllah’s focus and stress on the Quran, its expository details and the principles of its elucidation of its translation and commentary. The vital importance of the understanding of the Quran in the turbulent times in which ShahWaliAllahlivedand how this study protected the Muslims from religious extinction has been brought out.
This article attempts to highlight the varying nature of writing Quranic commentaries in other than source language of the Quran all over the world in general and South Asia in particular.Citing the OIC’s publication about world bibliography of Quranic commentaries, the article mentions 770 books of commentary were written alone in Urdu till 1986.The article also covers the entire and partial translations of Urdu work Tafhim-al Quran, one of the most important Quranic commentaries ever produced in the South Asian languages.
National Library of Scotland, situated in the city center of Edinburgh, is one of the most important collections of books, maps, manuscripts and documents in Great Britain. It was opened in 1689 as the Library of Advocates. In 1710, when the First Copy Right Act of Queen Anne, also known as Statue of Anne, was passed; the National Library of Scotland, British Library, London and three other libraries were given the right to claim a copy of every book published in the Great Britain.
The Mantiq-ut-tayr is a famous allegory in Persian verse written by the scholar-poet, Faridud-din Attar. It has long been familiar in poetic circles in Persia and the subcontinent. Basically, it describes a ‘pilgrim’s progress’ of the birds who wish to seek out their King. Of course, an allegory stands for something beyond itself.
Dr Ghulam Sarwar was the founder [mu’assis] and DrAbid Ali Khan the senior Professor [Ustad-i Buzurg] of the Persian Department, University of Karachi. The second generation of Persian Department teachers were all pupils of this illustrious pair mentioned above. The Persian Department was on the same floor as the English Department and its energetic and considerate peon ShoaibUllah used to prepare excellent tea which was liked by all teachers of the neighboring departments.
A symbol of Eastern culture, Oriental learning and civilized Islamic values, Professor Ali MohsinSiddiqui, M.A. in Islamic Studies, M.A. Arabic, M.A. Persian, was a long-time teacher of the Islamic sciences in the Faculty of Islamic Studies, University of Karachi, who became Dean of the said Faculty and headed it with distinction.