Tracing the background, leading Dr Daud Rahbar to start his career as Urdu teacher in Ankara, the article briefly mentions how and by whom he was recommended there to join. It also indicates his memoirs in Turkey. Discussing the International Islamic Colloquium of Lahore, it shows how his topic for the forum ‘The challenges of Modern Ideas and Social Values to Muslim Society’ distributed in print in English, Arabic and Urdu, was objected due to certain statements by the delegates from Syria and Egypt and demanded withdrawal of his paper. Dr Rahbar had to make certain changes and the proceedings of the colloquium came in 1960 excluded his paper. Before the colloquium started, its director Muhammad Asad resigned and did not even participate in any session. The article gives details of his visit to Turkey emerged through the letters to many known names of Urdu language and literature such as Mawlavi Abdul Haq, Mawlana Salahuddin Ahmed, Mushfiq Khawaja, Ijaz Husain Batalvi, Zia Mohyeddin, Syed Samad Husain Rizvi and Agha Babur.
Ibn al-‘Arabi’s influence reached Christian philosophers and mystics of the Middle Ages and has a deep effect on the mystical thought of some of the leading Sufis of the Indian Subcontinent. The views propounded by Ibn al-‘Arabi, were not left unchallenged. His books are carefully read and commented upon in detail.
Finally a new School, Shuhūdiyyah, emerged which maintained that the Not-being (‘adam) is conjoined with the reflex or illumination of the Names (‘asma”) and Attributes (ṣifāt) of God. This doctrine is clearly expounded by Ahmad Sirhindi (d. 1624 A.D.) who is generally known as Mujaddid-i-Alf-i-Thani (the Renewer of Islam in the second millennium of the Islamic Era).
Apart from the conflicting views of the staunch followers of Wujūdiyyah and Shuhūdiyyah Schools, an attempt has also been made to find a way of reconciliation between them. As Shah Waliullah (1703-1762 A.D.), a revolutionary Indian thinker and theologian, points out that if we leave simile and metaphor aside.
These two Schools of Sufism deeply influenced many eminent representatives of Indian intelligentsia, especially the mystical poets of the Subcontinent e.g. Mir Dard, a follower of both Ibn al-‘Arabi and Ahmad Sirhindi and the great Punjabi poet, Bullhe Shah, who was surnamed “the Rumi of Punjab”.